Author + information
- Received November 20, 2019
- Revision received April 20, 2020
- Accepted April 22, 2020
- Published online July 29, 2020.
- Philipp Lacour, MDa,b,
- Abdul Shokor Parwani, MDa,
- Franziska Schuessler, MDa,
- Felix Hohendanner, MD, PhDa,b,
- Frank R. Heinzel, MD, PhDa,b,
- Tobias D. Trippel, MDa,b,
- Leif-Hendrik Boldt, MDa,
- Burkert Pieske, MDa,b and
- Florian Blaschke, MDa,b,∗ ()
- aDepartment of Cardiology, Charité–Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin, Germany
- bGerman Centre for Cardiovascular Research, Partnersite Berlin, Germany
- ↵∗Address for correspondence:
Dr. Florian Blaschke, Department of Cardiology, Charité–Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Augustenburger Platz 1, Berlin, Germany 13353.
Objectives Given the increasing prevalence of mobile phone and smartwatch use, this study tested patients with cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) for the incidence and consequence of contemporary mobile phone and smartwatch-produced electromagnetic interferences.
Background Electromagnetic interferences can be hazardous for patients with CIEDs.
Methods In total, 148 patients with CIEDs and leads from 4 different manufacturers were subjected to 1,352 tests. Analyzed CIEDs included 51 pacemakers, 5 cardiac resynchronization therapy pacemakers, 46 implantable cardioverter-defibrillators, 43 cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillators, and 3 implantable loop recorders. To analyze a possible influence of certain distances between the mobile phone (iPhone 6) and the smartwatch (Apple Watch A1553) to the CIED, both were placed either directly above implanted devices or at the right wrist. All possible activations of the iPhone and the Apple Watch, including the standby, dialing, and connecting modes (telephone connection and Internet access) were tested. In addition, we studied incidence and characteristics of interferences with interrogation telemetry.
Results In this study, only a single case of mobile phone–induced electromagnetic interference on a dual-chamber pacemaker was observed. Utilizing wanded telemetry, iPhone induced interferences were found in 14% of the patients. However, none of the patients showed any interference with the Apple Watch.
Conclusions The risk of electromagnetic interferences of the iPhone 6 and the Apple Watch with CIEDs is low. However, close proximity of the iPhone 6 to implanted devices can cause telemetry interferences.
Dr. Pieske has received speaking fees from Bayer Healthcare, Novartis, Merck Sharp and Dohme, Servier, Britsol-Myers Squibb, and Medscape; and has served on the Steering Committees of Bayer Healthcare, Novartis, Merck Sharp and Dohme, and Servier. All other authors have reported that they have no relationships relevant to the contents of this paper to disclose.
The authors attest they are in compliance with human studies committees and animal welfare regulations of the authors’ institutions and Food and Drug Administration guidelines, including patient consent where appropriate. For more information, visit the JACC: Clinical Electrophysiology author instructions page.
- Received November 20, 2019.
- Revision received April 20, 2020.
- Accepted April 22, 2020.
- 2020 American College of Cardiology Foundation
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