|Pericardial tamponade||0 (0)|
|Phrenic nerve paralysis||0 (0)|
|Pulmonary vein stenosis||0 (0)|
|Atrioesophageal fistula||0 (0)|
|Vascular–major complications||0 (0)|
|Sinoatrial blockade requiring pacemaker implantation∗||1 (1.7)|
|Transient ischemic attack||0 (0)|
|Vascular–minor complications†||3 (5.0)|
|Pericardial effusion–no hemodynamic compromise‡||1 (1.7)|
|Any esophageal abnormality¶||6/20 (30)|
|Minor erythema||4/20 (20)|
|Moderate erosion||2/20 (10)|
|Esophageal abnormality as function of posterior left atrium dosing|
|Lesion duration = 4–5 s||3/8 (37.5)|
|Lesion duration ≤ 3.5 s||3/12 (25.0)|
Values are n, n (%) or n/N (%).
↵∗ This was noted in a patient with persistent AF after cardioversion following PVI, mitral isthmus line, and CTI ablation. This patient had documented sinus node dysfunction before the procedure, and no ablation lesions were near the sinus node. Accordingly, this was not related to the catheter but, rather, the underlying physiology.
↵† 1 patient each with groin abscess, hematoma, and arteriovenous fistula. All were confirmed with ultrasonography and treated conservatively.
↵‡ Noted in 1 patient and treated with anti-inflammatory medications.
↵§ An asymptomatic minimal pericardial effusion not requiring intervention.
↵‖ Related to placement of a temperature probe into the esophagus.
↵¶ Identified by endoscopy in patients ablated with temperature monitoring. (Patients with esophageal deviation are not included.) All abnormalities resolved upon repeat endoscopy 1 to 2 weeks later.