Table 1

Clinical Characteristics of 173 AC Patients, Comparing Mutation-Positive Family Members and Probands

All Patients (n = 173)Family Members (n = 82)Probands (n = 91)p Value
Age, yrs41 ± 1638 ± 1743 ± 150.02
Female76 (44)46 (56)30 (33)0.002
BSA, m21.9 ± 0.21.9 ± 0.22.0 ± 0.20.09
Heart rate, beats/min62 ± 1267 ± 1458 ± 10<0.001
VA83 (48)5 (6)78 (86)<0.001
Exercise characteristics
 Duration, h/week2.5 (2.0–5.5)2.0 (2.0–4.1)5.0 (2.0–6.3)<0.001
 Long duration86 (50)29 (35)57 (63)<0.001
 Intensity, METs6.7 ± 1.95.9 ± 1.57.4 ± 1.8<0.001
 High intensity91 (53)22 (27)69 (76)<0.001
 Dose, MET-h/week18 (12–41)12 (10–21)38 (14–56)<0.001
Electrocardiogram
 Epsilon wave18 (10)2 (2)16 (18)0.001
 TWI, major51 (30)11 (13)40 (46)<0.001
 TWI, minor17 (10)9 (11)8 (9)0.68
 TAD >55 ms17 (10)5 (6)12 (14)0.10
 SAECG pathology (n = 139)83 (48)30 (42)53 (78)<0.001
Medication
 Beta blocker106 (62)39 (48)67 (75)<0.001
 Flecainide14 (8)5 (6)9 (10)0.33
 Amiodarone36 (21)11 (13)25 (28)0.02

Values are mean ± SD, n (%), or median (interquartile range). Unpaired Student’s t-test, chi-squared, or Mann-Whitney U test as appropriate.

AC = arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy; BSA = body surface area; METs = metabolic equivalents; SAECG = signal-averaged electrocardiogram; TAD = terminal activation duration; TWI = T-wave inversion; VA = ventricular arrhythmia.