Table 1

Patient Demographics (n = 26)

Mean ± SD or Numbers (%)
Patients26
Age (y)68.8 ± 8.4
Male (%)22 (84.6)
LVEF (%)34.2% ± 7.8
NYHA2.6 ± 0.5
QRS duration (ms)163.8 ± 26.7
QRS morphology
 RV paced24 (92)
 LBBB2 (8)
Etiology
 ICM (%)8 (30.8)
Indication
 Difficult CS anatomy/access14 (53.8)
Upgrades
 High-risk upgrade7 (26.9)
 Prior infection/extraction3 (11.5)
 Failure to respond to BiV EPI2 (8.0)
Guidance technique
 Echocardiographic9 (34.6)
 Electrical latency10 (38.%)
 CMR and EAM7 (26.9)

BiV = biventricular; CMR = cardiac magnetic resonance; CS = coronary sinus; EAM = electro-anatomical mapping; EPI = epicardial; ICM = ischemic cardiomyopathy; LBBB = left bundle branch block; LVEF = left ventricular ejection fraction; NYHA = New York Heart Association; RV = right ventricular.