Table 1

Baseline Characteristics of the Cohort (N = 20)

Age, yrs61 ± 12
Male13 (65.0)
Diabetes mellitus0 (0.0)
Hypertension7 (35.0)
TIA/CVA1 (5.0)
Ischemic heart disease1 (5.0)
Cardiac surgery1 (5.0)
Left ventricular EF ≥55%18 (90.0)
LA size, cm2
 20–3017 (85.0)
 30–403 (15)
 >400 (0.0)
AF duration, months13.5 ± 6.2
Previous AT ablation
 Cavotricuspid isthmus-dependent flutter2 (10.0)
Current antiarrhythmic or rate-controlling strategy
 Beta-blockers including sotalol11 (55.0)
 Amiodarone5 (25.0)
 Flecainide1 (5.0)
Current anticoagulation strategy
 Warfarin6 (30.0)
 Novel oral anticoagulants14 (70.0)

Values are mean ± SD or n (%).

AF = atrial fibrillation; AT = atrial tachycardia; CVA = cerebrovascular accident; EF = ejection fraction; LA = left atrium; TIA = transient ischemic attack.