Table 4

Healthcare Costs Associated With Pacemaker-Related Complications

nMean Total Actual CostIncremental Actual CostMean Total Predicted CostIncremental Predicted Cost, Mean ± SDp Value
With ComplicationWithout ComplicationWith ComplicationWithout Complication
Commercial insurance
 Infection232$119,365$39,118$80,247$120,915$38,981$81,933 ± 32,192<0.001
 Thoracic trauma424$106,395$36,280$70,114$104,331$36,758$67,573 ± 29,223<0.001
 Pocket complication28$93,294$51,284$42,010$89,073$53,530$35,543 ± 31,5590.15
 Generator complication10
 Lead complication requiring revision480$44,210$34,914$9,296$44,141$34,948$9,193 ± 3,842<0.001
 Venous embolism/thrombosis89$97,015$34,352$62,663$91,744$35,603$56,141 ± 28,658<0.001
 Cardiac perforation96$140,706$38,220$102,486$133,014$39,222$93,792 ± 35,042<0.001
Medicare supplemental insurance
 Infection528$61,800$26,032$35,768$61,918$26,018$35,900 ± 10,048<0.001
 Thoracic trauma2,061$48,167$26,472$21,695$47,766$26,577$21,190 ± 3,625<0.001
 Pocket complication137$36,733$25,900$10,833$36,251$26,131$10,120 ± 7,5260.01
 Generator complication32$23,181$19,978$3,203$23,986$19,776$4,210 ± 7,0110.27
 Lead complication requiring revision1,828$34,203$25,371$8,832$34,033$25,437$8,596 ± 2,903<0.001
 Venous embolism/thrombosis229$39,913$26,510$13,403$38,808$26,844$11,964 ± 8,0880.0033
 Cardiac perforation270$62,590$23,541$39,049$61,424$23,755$37,669 ± 7,939<0.001
  • For unadjusted (actual) cost, the incremental cost associated with each complication is the average total cost for each complication minus the average total cost of a case with no complications.

  • For risk-adjusted (predicted) cost, the incremental cost associated with each complication is the average predicted cost for each complication minus the average predicted cost of an uncomplicated case, controlling for age, sex, device type, Charlson comorbidity index, and the complications of interest.

  • The cost comparison and predictions were not performed for generator complication, because of small sample size.