Table 2

Mixed Effect Model

Mean Difference95% Confidence Intervalp Value
Change in AHR (%)4.230.52 to 7.930.025
QLV (ms)−5.92−18.45 to 6.600.354
Stimulation-QRS duration (ms)−3.70−6.50 to 0.880.010
Paced QRS duration (ms)−25.45−33.59 to −17.32<0.001

Mixed effect model for all data points achieving capture comparing epicardial and endocardial pacing across the dependent variables as shown. A total of 32 epicardial and 87 endocardial data points were compared across 8 patients.

AHR = acute hemodynamic response; QLV = first ventricular depolarization (earliest onset QRS duration on surface 12 lead electrocardiogram) to the nadir signal on the LV lead electrogram.