Table 3

Univariate and Multivariate Cox Proportional Hazards Models for Time to AF Recurrence After Catheter Ablation

UnivariateMultivariate
Model 1Model 2
HR (95% CI)p ValueHR (95% CI)p ValueHR (95% CI)p Value
LA-TR, per 10%1.60 (1.25–2.06)<0.0011.51 (1.09–2.09)0.0141.48 (1.11–1.98)0.008
METs, per 1 U0.88 (0.78–0.99)0.0270.84 (0.36–1.96)0.6890.64 (0.32–1.27)0.200
Age, per 10 yrs1.90 (1.27–2.84)0.0021.43 (0.85–2.41)0.1791.39 (0.87–2.23)0.172
Males0.78 (0.39–1.58)0.493
BMI, per 1 kg/m21.01 (0.95–1.06)0.782
LVEF, per 10%1.47 (0.76–2.83)0.255
LA volume, per 10 ml1.07 (1.00–1.15)0.0651.01 (0.99–1.02)0.344
CHF1.27 (0.303–5.28)0.747
CAD1.14 (0.47–2.75)0.774
HTN2.32 (1.05–5.13)0.0371.59 (0.63–4.05)0.3311.54 (0.66–3.60)0.320
DM2.13 (0.93–4.89)0.0752.61 (0.87–7.81)0.087
Stroke1.34 (0.83–2.15)0.232
Persistent or chronic AF (reference = paroxysmal)2.32 (1.11–4.85)0.0261.06 (0.41–2.78)0.9021.41 (0.61–3.25)0.424
BB0.68 (0.35–1.51)0.347
CCB1.80 (0.84–3.86)0.1301.15 (0.44–3.02)0.770
AAD1.70 (0.77–3.78)0.1901.90 (0.72–5.02)0.197
Digoxin1.63 (0.63–4.20)0.316
Exercise duration, per 1 min0.89 (0.79–1.00)0.0431.25 (0.52–3.01)0.6211.63 (0.81–3.26)0.172
Baseline HR, per 10 beats/min1.03 (0.83–1.28)0.772
Maximum HR, per 10 beats/min0.85 (0.73–0.98)0.0280.95 (0.80–1.14)0.5860.90 (0.77–1.06)0.211
Baseline systolic BP, per 10 mm Hg1.01 (0.84–1.22)0.900
Maximum systolic BP, per 10 mm Hg0.91 (0.80–1.04)0.1810.90 (0.76–1.06)0.203
Ischemia on ETT0.60 (0.08–4.39)0.614
AF during ETT0.71 (0.31–1.64)0.422

Significant p values are in bold.

AAD = antiarrhythmic drug; BB = beta-blocker; BP = blood pressure; CAD = coronary artery disease; DM = diabetes mellitus; HR = hazard ratio; LA-TR = left atrial structural remodeling; other abbreviations as in Tables 1 and 2.