|Study||Acronym||Year||n||Mean Age||Sex (% males)||Follow-Up (mo)||PVI Arm Analyzed||Non-PVI Arm||Primary Endpoint||Endpoint Used for Analysis||%PsAF||Mean LA Diameter (mm)||Mean LVEF (%)||Hypertension (%)||Absence of AADs Mandated||Means of Detecting Recurrence|
|Chen et al. (11)||NA||2011||118||56.1||66.5||22.6 ± 6.4||PVI||CFAE||Freedom from AF/AT∗||Freedom from AF/AT||0||34.7||65.5||23||Yes||ECG and 24-h Holter 3 days and 1, 3, 6 and 12 mo post-procedure. Additional testing if symptomatic|
|Di Biase et al. (23)||NA||2009||68||58.4||82.3||13.7 ± 2.2||PVI+CFAE||CFAE||Freedom from AF/AT||Freedom from AF/AT||0||46.2||55||35.7||No||Event recorder for 5 mo with minimum 4 times per week recording. 48-h Holter at 3,6, 9, 12 and 15 mo post-procedure|
|Katritsis et al. (24)||NA||2013||164||56||66||24||PVI+GP||GP||Freedom from AF/AT||Freedom from AF/AT||0||48.3||62.6||76.3||No||Monthly Holter for 2 years, transtelephonic transmission when symptomatic. 50% of patients also received an ILR.|
|Mamchur et al. (25)||NA||2014||79||56.6||60||16||PVI||GP||Freedom from AF||Freedom from AF∗||100||46.2||45.9||Not reported||No||24-h Holter, frequency not specified.|
|Atienza et al. (10)||RADAR-AF||2014||113||53.5||78.6||12||PVI||HFSA||Freedom from AF||Freedom from AF/AT||0||40||60||36.3||Yes||ECG and 48-h Holter at 3, 6, and 12 mo post- procedure.|
|Verma et al. (26)||STAR AF||2010||68||57||74.3||12||PVI+CFAE||CFAE||Freedom from AF||Freedom from AF/AT/AFL||35.7||41.6||61.7||44.9||No||ECG and 48-h Holter at 3, 6, and 12 mo post-procedure. External loop recorder and/or transtelephonic monitors used to confirm rhythm when symptomatic outside of follow-up visits.|
AAD = antiarrhythmic drugs; AF = atrial fibrillation; AFL = atrial flutter; AT = atrial tachycardia; CFAE = complex fractionated atrial electrogram; ECG = electrocardiography; FIRM = focal impulse and rotor modulation; GP = ganglionated plexi; HFSA = high-frequency source ablation; ILR = implantable loop recorder; LA = left atrium; LVEF = left ventricular ejection fraction; NA = not applicable; PsAF = persistent AF; PVI = pulmonary vein isolation; RADAR-AF = Radiofrequency Ablation of Drivers of Atrial Fibrillation; STAR-AF = Substrate Versus Trigger Ablation for Reduction of Atrial Fibrillation Trial.
↵∗ Freedom from AF/AT was not reported.