Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation With Pulsed Electric Fields
An Ultra-Rapid, Tissue-Selective Modality for Cardiac Ablation
Vivek Y. Reddy, Jacob Koruth, Pierre Jais, Jan Petru, Ferdinand Timko, Ivo Skalsky, Robert Hebeler, Louis Labrousse, Laurent Barandon, Stepan Kralovec, Moritoshi Funosako, Boochi Babu Mannuva, Lucie Sediva and Petr Neuzil
Baseline and Post-Ablation Electroanatomical Voltage Mapping
Posterior LA views from representative endocardial (top, A and B) and epicardial (bottom, C and D) PEF ablation cases. The 2 left panels were baseline maps, while the right panels were post-ablation maps. Purple represents normal bipolar voltage amplitude, while red and gray represent diminished amplitudes—indicating the absence of electrical potentials. At baseline, the electrical activity was noted at the PV ostia; the low voltage observed distally in the PVs is normal. After endocardial ablation (B), the voltage amplitudes are diminished in the PVs—electrical isolation was confirmed using a multielectrode catheter (not shown); the residual color seen in some of the PVs (such as the right inferior PV here) simply represent far-field potentials. After epicardial ablation (D), the electrical activity along the entire posterior LA and PVs are replaced with low voltage (red and gray). Abbreviations as in Figure 1.