Optogenetic Assays to Quantify Electrophysiological Properties
(A) Schematic representation of automated OptoDyCE system for all-optical stimulation and interrogation of 96-well cardiomyocyte monolayer arrays. (B) Optically mapped APs (top) and Ca2+ transients (bottom) provoked by light stimuli (blue). (C) ChR2-expressing cardiomyocytes plated on a multielectrode array. (D) Multielectrode array field potentials elicited by optogenetic pacing (blue), overlaid (left), or averaged (right). Modified with permission from (A, B) Klimas et al. (44), and (C, D) Lapp et al. (47). aLED = light emitting diode for actuation; DM = dichroic mirror; Fem = emission filter; Fex = excitation filter; L = lens; sLED = light emitting diode for sensing; other abbreviations as in Figure 2.