|First Author||Year||LAAEI (n)||Control (n)||Study Design||Study Description||Arrhythmia Follow-Up Protocol||Arrhythmia Endpoint||Mean Follow-Up (Months)|
|Di Biase (8)∗||2010||167||43||Retrospective observational||Patients with LAA triggers during redo AF ablation managed with no ablation, LAAEI, or focal ablation||Holter (48 h or 7 d) was obtained at 3, 6, 9, 13, and 15 months after ablation. Pts had event recorder for 5 months and had periodic asymptomatic transmissions per protocol||AT/AF >32 s after 2-month blanking period||12|
|Lee (10)||2014||119||119||Retrospective observational study with propensity matching||Mitral valve surgery with cryomaze ± LAA excision at the surgeon’s discretion||ECG at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months. Holter used for asymptomatic patients, but use was not standardized||AF/AT after 3-month blanking period†||62|
|Lakkireddy (11)||2015||69||69||Prospective observational with matched control subjects||Prospective arm underwent LARIAT LAA occlusion followed by AF ablation during a separate procedure||2-month event monitor beginning 2 weeks post procedure, 7-day monitor at 6- and 12-month visits, or additionally as clinically indicated. Device interrogation (when applicable) at 2-, 6-, and 12-month clinic appointments||AT/AF >30 s after 2-month blanking||12|
|Di Biase (12)||2016||85||88||Randomized trial||LAAEI vs. no LAAEI at the time of AF ablation||Holter (48 h or 7 d) at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 months post ablation with event recorder for symptomatic evens and periodic asymptomatic transmissions||AT/AF >30 s after 12-week blanking period||24|
|Panikker (13)||2016||20||40||Prospective observational with matched control subjects||LAAEI with WATCHMAN occlusion at the time of AF ablation compared to AF ablation alone||7-d continuous ECG monitoring at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months||AT/AF >30 s after 3-month blanking period||12|
|Park (14)‡||2016||18||24||Retrospective observational||Stepwise approach to AF ablation, with reporting of those with and without LAAEI at the conclusion of the procedure||Holter monitoring (48 h) at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after ablation||>30 s AT/AF after 3-month blanking period||21|
|Romanov (15)||2016||88||88||Randomized trial||Surgical AF ablation (PV isolation, box lesion, ganglionated plexi ablation) ± LAA excision||Holter at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months with implantable monitors in ≈80%||>30 s recurrent atrial arrhythmia after 3-month blanking period||18|
Value are n.
AF = atrial fibrillation; AT = atrial tachycardia; LAAEI = left atrial appendage electrical isolation; Pts = patients; PV = pulmonary vein; SR = sinus rhythm.
↵∗ Study included a third arm with focal ablation of left atrial appendage (LAA) triggers (i.e., without complete isolation) that was not included in the current study.
↵† Minimum arrhythmia duration was not specified.
↵‡ Study included a third arm with delayed (but ongoing) LAA conduction (i.e., without complete isolation) that was not included in the current study.