Dominant Substrate Location and Adjacent Structures in DCM With Known Etiologies
(A to D) Bull's-eyes of the left ventricular (LV) wall representing the dominant distribution of late gadolinium enhancement on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (LGE-CMR). The predominant location (endocardial/epicardial/intramural) is indicated below each bull's-eye. Note the basal predilection involving the anteroseptal segments in laminopathies and sarcoidosis. (E, F) Bull's-eyes of the epicardial surface overlying the right ventricle (RV) (left half) and LV (right half) showing the epicardial fat thickness (in mm) distribution in 28 patients, color-coded according to bar(E) and average thickness per segment (F). Note that the thickest fat layer covers the basal anterior and basal inferior LV and the grooves, areas typically involved in laminopathies and sarcoid. (G) Bull's-eye of the LV representing the distribution of VT substrates in 37 patients with inherited dilated cardiomyopathy and VT. Note the dominant (but not exclusively) anteroseptal location for lamin (LMNA) and titin (TTN) and posterolateral location for phospholamban (PLN) mutations. DSP = desmoplakin; MYPN = myopalladin; RBM20 = RNA binding motif protein 20; VT = ventricular tachycardia.