The Effect of Contact Force in Atrial Radiofrequency Ablation
Electroanatomical, Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, and Histological Assessment in a Chronic Porcine Model
Steven E. Williams, James Harrison, Henry Chubb, Lars Ølgaard Bloch, Niels Peter Andersen, Høgni Dam, Rashed Karim, John Whitaker, Jaswinder Gill, Michael Cooklin, C. Aldo Rinaldi, Kawal Rhode, Matthew Wright, Tobias Schaeffter, Won Yong Kim, Henrik Jensen, Reza Razavi and Mark D. O'Neill
Macroscopic and Microscopic Appearances of the Ablation Line
(A) Epicardial (top) and endocardial (bottom) views. The ablation line gap can be seen just before ablation continues into the inferior vena cava (IVC). (B) Endocardial view showing cranial, mid-, and caudal ends of the ablation line. Dotted lines indicate primary cuts to prepare specimens for sectioning. (C) Masson's trichrome stain of cranial, gap, and caudal sections of the ablation line. The top and bottom panels are sectioned transverse to the line, with the middle panel sectioned longitudinal to the line through the ablation gap. Catheter direction during ablation is shown schematically. LA = left atrial; SVC = superior vena cava; other abbreviations as in Figure 2.