Temporal Stability of Rotors and Atrial Activation Patterns in Persistent Human Atrial Fibrillation
A High-Density Epicardial Mapping Study of Prolonged Recordings
Tomos E. Walters, Geoffrey Lee, Gwilym Morris, Steven Spence, Marco Larobina, Victoria Atkinson, Phillip Antippa, John Goldblatt, Alistair Royse, Michael O’Keefe, Prashanthan Sanders, Joseph B. Morton, Peter M. Kistler and Jonathan M. Kalman
(A) The entirety of the rotational pathway of activation round the rotor core is mapped through identification of bipolar electrograms (EGMs). (B) Narrow, regular EGMs surrounding the rotor core, at a cycle length of 115 ms. (C) Fractionated, short CL activity recorded at bipoles clustered around the central core of rotation. LAPW = left atrial posterior wall.